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Nobel Prize Winners

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  • Atypical
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    #1202645543

    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2018 was divided, one half awarded to Frances H. Arnold “for the directed evolution of enzymes”, the other half jointly to George P. Smith and Sir Gregory P. Winter “for the phage display of peptides and antibodies.”

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    Atypical
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    The Norwegian Nobel Committee has decided to award the Nobel Peace Prize for 2018 to Denis Mukwege and Nadia Murad for their efforts to end the use of sexual violence as a weapon of war and armed conflict. Both laureates have made a crucial contribution to focusing attention on, and combating, such war crimes. Denis Mukwege is the helper who has devoted his life to defending these victims. Nadia Murad is the witness who tells of the abuses perpetrated against herself and others. Each of them in their own way has helped to give greater visibility to war-time sexual violence, so that the perpetrators can be held accountable for their actions.

    The physician Denis Mukwege has spent large parts of his adult life helping the victims of sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Since the Panzi Hospital was established in Bukavu in 1999, Dr. Mukwege and his staff have treated thousands of patients who have fallen victim to such assaults. Most of the abuses have been committed in the context of a long-lasting civil war that has cost the lives of more than six million Congolese.

    Denis Mukwege is the foremost, most unifying symbol, both nationally and internationally, of the struggle to end sexual violence in war and armed conflicts. His basic principle is that “justice is everyone’s business”. Men and women, officers and soldiers, and local, national and international authorities alike all have a shared responsibility for reporting, and combating, this type of war crime. The importance of Dr. Mukwege’s enduring, dedicated and selfless efforts in this field cannot be overstated. He has repeatedly condemned impunity for mass rape and criticised the Congolese government and other countries for not doing enough to stop the use of sexual violence against women as a strategy and weapon of war.

    Nadia Murad is herself a victim of war crimes. She refused to accept the social codes that require women to remain silent and ashamed of the abuses to which they have been subjected. She has shown uncommon courage in recounting her own sufferings and speaking up on behalf of other victims.

    Nadia Murad is a member of the Yazidi minority in northern Iraq, where she lived with her family in the remote village of Kocho. In August 2014 the Islamic State (IS) launched a brutal, systematic attack on the villages of the Sinjar district, aimed at exterminating the Yazidi population. In Nadia Murad’s village, several hundred people were massacred. The younger women, including underage children, were abducted and held as sex slaves. While a captive of the IS, Nadia Murad was repeatedly subjected to rape and other abuses. Her assaulters threatened to execute her if she did not convert to their hateful, inhuman version of Islam.

    Nadia Murad is just one of an estimated 3 000 Yazidi girls and women who were victims of rape and other abuses by the IS army. The abuses were systematic, and part of a military strategy. Thus they served as a weapon in the fight against Yazidis and other religious minorities.

    After a three-month nightmare Nadia Murad managed to flee. Following her escape, she chose to speak openly about what she had suffered. In 2016, at the age of just 23, she was named the UN’s first Goodwill Ambassador for the Dignity of Survivors of Human Trafficking.

    This year marks a decade since the UN Security Council adopted Resolution 1820 (2008), which determined that the use of sexual violence as a weapon of war and armed conflict constitutes both a war crime and a threat to international peace and security. This is also set out in the Rome Statute of 1998, which governs the work of the International Criminal Court. The Statute establishes that sexual violence in war and armed conflict is a grave violation of international law. A more peaceful world can only be achieved if women and their fundamental rights and security are recognised and protected in war.

    This year’s Nobel Peace Prize is firmly embedded in the criteria spelled out in Alfred Nobel’s will. Denis Mukwege and Nadia Murad have both put their personal security at risk by courageously combating war crimes and seeking justice for the victims. They have thereby promoted the fraternity of nations through the application of principles of international law.

    Oslo, 5 October 2018

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    Atypical
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    8 October 2018

    The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2018 to

    William D. Nordhaus
    Yale University, New Haven, USA

    “for integrating climate change into long-run macroeconomic analysis”

    and

    Paul M. Romer
    NYU Stern School of Business, New York, USA

    “for integrating technological innovations into long-run acroeconomic analysis”

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    Atypical
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    8 October 2019

    The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award the Nobel Prize in Physics 2019

    “for contributions to our understanding of the evolution of the universe and Earth’s place in the cosmos”

    with one half to

    James Peebles
    Princeton University, USA

    “for theoretical discoveries in physical cosmology”

    and the other half jointly to

    Michel Mayor
    University of Geneva, Switzerland

    and

    Didier Queloz
    University of Geneva, Switzerland
    University of Cambridge, UK

    “for the discovery of an exoplanet orbiting a solar-type star”

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    Atypical
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    9 October 2019

    The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2019 to

    John B. Goodenough
    The University of Texas at Austin, USA

    M. Stanley Whittingham
    Binghamton University, State University of New York, USA

    Akira Yoshino
    Asahi Kasei Corporation, Tokyo, Japan
    Meijo University, Nagoya, Japan

    “for the development of lithium-ion batteries”

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    Atypical
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    #1203130409

    Nobel Prize for Literature to name two winners after scandal-hit year
    BBC NEWS

    The Nobel Prize for Literature is set to be awarded on Thursday. Twice.

    The Handmaid’s Tale author Margaret Atwood, fellow Canadian Anne Carson and Russian novelist Lyudmila Ulitskaya are among the names thought to be in contention for the prizes this year.

    Two winners are set to be named because the prize was not awarded in 2018.

    The Swedish Academy, which oversees the prestigious award, suspended it to make changes to its processes after it was engulfed in a sexual assault scandal.
    Jean-Claude Arnault, the husband of Academy member Katarina Frostenson, was sentenced to two years in prison in October after being convicted of rape.

    Frostenson stepped down, and the events sparked a crisis in the organisation involving allegations of conflict of interest and the leaking of Nobel winners’ names. It all resulted in “reduced public confidence in the Academy”, according to the awards body.

    “Our reputation is everything,” said Lars Heikensten, executive director of the Nobel Foundation. “Obviously, it is important to avoid this kind of situation we have been in and of course it cannot be repeated.”

    The Academy has also made changes to its panel, bringing in several new members since last year. The body will now also allow its members to resign, and no longer tolerate members who have been subject to conflicts of interest or criminal investigations.

    As Alfred Nobel put it in his will, the prize is awarded to the author who is deemed to have written “the most outstanding work in an ideal direction”.

    Sara Danius, permanent secretary of the Swedish Academy, has said: “The Nobel Prize in Literature is awarded to someone who has done outstanding work in an idealistic direction that adds the greatest benefit to humankind. Nationality is expressly unimportant.”
    The winner is decided by members of the Swedish Academy, but their decision-making process is kept secret for 50 years.

    Academy member Anders Olsson said they looked for a more diverse shortlist this year and were moving away from a more “male-oriented” and “Eurocentric perspective of literature”.

    Other names thought to be in contention include Guadeloupian author Maryse Condé – who won an alternative award set up last year – plus Poland’s Olga Tokarczuk and the Kenyan Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o.

    Previous winners include Bob Dylan (2016), Alice Munro (2013), Orhan Pamuk (2006), Toni Morrison (2003) and Gabriel García Márquez (1982).

    The winning writer receives nine million Swedish kronor (£740,000), as well as a medal and a diploma.

    The prize was launched in 1901. There are seven years during which it has not been awarded since then, but never previously because of a scandal.

    It was not given out during World War One, and was also missed during four years of World War Two.

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    Atypical
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    The Nobel Prizes in Literature for 2018 and 2019

    The Nobel Prize in Literature for 2018 is awarded to the Polish author

    Olga Tokarczuk

    “for a narrative imagination that with encyclopedic passion represents the crossing of boundaries as a form of life.”

    The Nobel Prize in Literature for 2019 is awarded to the Austrian author

    Peter Handke

    “for an influential work that with linguistic ingenuity has explored the periphery and the specificity of human experience.”

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    Atypical
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    The Norwegian Nobel Committee has decided to award the Nobel Peace Prize for 2019 to Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed Ali for his efforts to achieve peace and international cooperation, and in particular for his decisive initiative to resolve the border conflict with neighbouring Eritrea. The prize is also meant to recognise all the stakeholders working for peace and reconciliation in Ethiopia and in the East and Northeast African regions.

    When Abiy Ahmed became Prime Minister in April 2018, he made it clear that he wished to resume peace talks with Eritrea. In close cooperation with Isaias Afwerki, the President of Eritrea, Abiy Ahmed quickly worked out the principles of a peace agreement to end the long “no peace, no war” stalemate between the two countries. These principles are set out in the declarations that Prime Minister Abiy and President Afwerki signed in Asmara and Jeddah last July and September. An important premise for the breakthrough was Abiy Ahmed’s unconditional willingness to accept the arbitration ruling of an international boundary commission in 2002.

    Peace does not arise from the actions of one party alone. When Prime Minister Abiy reached out his hand, President Afwerki grasped it, and helped to formalise the peace process between the two countries. The Norwegian Nobel Committee hopes the peace agreement will help to bring about positive change for the entire populations of Ethiopia and Eritrea.

    In Ethiopia, even if much work remains, Abiy Ahmed has initiated important reforms that give many citizens hope for a better life and a brighter future. He spent his first 100 days as Prime Minister lifting the country’s state of emergency, granting amnesty to thousands of political prisoners, discontinuing media censorship, legalising outlawed opposition groups, dismissing military and civilian leaders who were suspected of corruption, and significantly increasing the influence of women in Ethiopian political and community life. He has also pledged to strengthen democracy by holding free and fair elections.

    In the wake of the peace process with Eritrea, Prime Minister Abiy has engaged in other peace and reconciliation processes in East and Northeast Africa. In September 2018 he and his government contributed actively to the normalisation of diplomatic relations between Eritrea and Djibouti after many years of political hostility. Additionally, Abiy Ahmed has sought to mediate between Kenya and Somalia in their protracted conflict over rights to a disputed marine area. There is now hope for a resolution to this conflict. In Sudan, the military regime and the opposition have returned to the negotiating table. On the 17th of August, they released a joint draft of a new constitution intended to secure a peaceful transition to civil rule in the country. Prime Minister Abiy played a key role in the process that led to the agreement.

    Ethiopia is a country of many different languages and peoples. Lately, old ethnic rivalries have flared up. According to international observers, up to three million Ethiopians may be internally displaced. That is in addition to the million or so refugees and asylum seekers from neighbouring countries. As Prime Minister, Abiy Ahmed has sought to promote reconciliation, solidarity and social justice. However, many challenges remain unresolved. Ethnic strife continues to escalate, and we have seen troubling examples of this in recent weeks and months. No doubt some people will think this year’s prize is being awarded too early. The Norwegian Nobel Committee believes it is now that Abiy Ahmed’s efforts deserve recognition and need encouragement.

    The Norwegian Nobel Committee hopes that the Nobel Peace Prize will strengthen Prime Minister Abiy in his important work for peace and reconciliation. Ethiopia is Africa’s second most populous country and has East Africa’s largest economy. A peaceful, stable and successful Ethiopia will have many positive side-effects, and will help to strengthen fraternity among nations and peoples in the region. With the provisions of Alfred Nobel’s will firmly in mind, the Norwegian Nobel Committee sees Abiy Ahmed as the person who in the preceding year has done the most to deserve the Nobel Peace Prize for 2019.

    Oslo, 11 October 2019

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    mellobruce
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    Greta Thunberg misses out on Nobel Peace Prize as the award is given to Ethiopia’s prime minister Abiy Ahmed

    The idea of Thunberg receiving a Nobel should be as ridiculous as Obama winning the Peace Nobel and Paul Krugman an Economics Nobel….

    Obama?  Nobel Peace prize?  seriously?  for what?

    Paul Krugman? Here is a total buffoon.  In 2004 he said a housing bubble would balance the markets.  Anyone remember 2008?  If Trump wins the world economy will collapse, he said.

    Today economist Paul Krugman, a longtime defender of global free trade and a member of the failed “Never Trump” movement, now admits that globalization has failed American workers.

    The Nobel Academy has regained credibility with this award, as well with the Nobel in Literature for the inimitable Robert Zimmerman,  aka Bob Dylan.

    • This reply was modified 3 days, 14 hours ago by  mellobruce.
    • This reply was modified 3 days, 14 hours ago by  mellobruce.
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